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black smoker chimneys

black smoker chimneys

Hydrothermal vent systems that form near active magmatic systems along the mid-ocean ridge system, approximately 2 miles (3 km) below sea level. Th…
biotite

biotite

A common black, dark brown, or green mineral of the mica group. It is an aluminosilicate with the formula K(Mg,Fe+2)3(Al,Fe+3)Si3O10(OH)2 and is a …
biosphere

biosphere

The biosphere encompasses the part of the Earth that is inhabited by life, and includes parts of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Life…
biogenic sediment

biogenic sediment

Sediments that are produced directly by the physiological activities of plants or animals. Rocks derived from biogenic sediments include both subaq…
Big Bang Theory

Big Bang Theory

One of several possible theoretical beginning moments of the universe. One of the deepest questions in cosmology, the science that deals with the s…
benthic

benthic

The benthic environment includes the ocean floor, and the benthos are those organisms that dwell on or near the seafloor. Bottom-dwelling benthos o…
bench mark

bench mark

Well-defined, uniformly fixed point on the land’s surface that is used for a reference point from which other measurements can be made. It is gener…